Wednesday, June 1, 2011

History of Gilead Sciences makers of "treatments of HIV"

Some interesting reading, (well with Wikipedia sometimes you do have to read with between the lines). Still, who's been on the Broad and when...good to know who's mixing up all the HIV meds formulas uh?

Gilead Sciences (NASDAQGILD) is a biopharmaceutical company that discovers, develops and commercializes therapeutics. For many years since the company was founded, the company concentrated primarily on antiviral drugs to treat patients infected withHIVhepatitis B or influenza. In 2006, Gilead acquired two companies that were developing drugs to treat patients with pulmonarydiseases. The company has fourteen commercially available products. Headquartered and founded in Foster City, California, Gilead has operations in North America, Europe and Australia. As of the end of 2009, the company had approximately 4,000 full-time employees.The company's name and logo refer to the Balm of GileadGilead (a place mentioned in the Bible) was famed for its small trees that produced a resin used in medicine.
Gilead is a member of the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index and the S&P 500.


Gilead Sciences was originally formed at Menlo Ventures under the name of "Oligogen, Inc." in August 1987 by H. DuBose Montgomery, co-founder of Menlo Ventures and Michael L. Riordan, a medical doctor who was 29 years old at the time. Riordan graduated from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, spent a year as a consultant and then joined as an associate at Menlo Ventures in 1986. The company traces its roots to a runny nose because Montgomery got a particularly bad cold—a virus—and in his misery he wondered why so few antivirals existed when so many antibiotics were in use. The name of the company was changed to "Gilead Sciences" in 1988 and Montgomery served as the first Chairman of the Board from 1987 to 1993. Riordan looked to Donald Rumsfeld as a mentor in the business world and to navigate the political waters. Under the technical leadership of scientist Mark Matteucci, the company focussed on discovery research, making small strands of DNA (oligomers) to assess the potential of genetic code blockers (gene therapy). Its development of small molecule antiviral therapeutics was ushered in by John Martin in 1992 with the licensing of nucleotide compounds discovered in two European academic labs.

In 1990, Gilead entered into a collaborative research agreement with Glaxo for the research and development of genetic code blockers, also known as antisense. This collaboration was terminated in 1998, and Gilead's antisense intellectual property portfolio was sold to Isis Pharmaceuticals.
Gilead debuted on the NASDAQ in January 1992. Its IPO raised $86.25 million in proceeds.
In June 1996, Gilead launched its first commercial product, Vistide (cidofovir injection) for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with AIDS. The company cooperated with Pharmacia & Upjohn to market the product outside the United States.
In March 1999, Gilead acquired NeXstar Pharmaceuticals of Boulder, Colorado following two years of negotiations with the company. At the time, NeXstar's annual sales of $130 million was three times Gilead's sales. NeXstar's two revenue-generating drugs were AmBisome, an injectable fungal treatment, and DaunoXome, an oncology drug taken by HIV patients. Also in 1999, Roche announced first approval of Tamiflu (oseltamivir) for the treatment of influenza. Tamiflu was originally discovered by Gilead and licensed to Roche for late-phase development and marketing.
Viread (tenofovir) achieved first approval in 2001 for the treatment of HIV.
In January 2003, Gilead completed its acquisition of Triangle Pharmaceuticals. The company also announced its first full year of profitability. Later that year Hepsera (adefovir) was approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B, and Emtriva (emtricitabine) for the treatment of HIV.
In 2004, Gilead launched Truvada, a fixed-dose combination of tenofovir and emtricitabine.
In January 1997, Donald Rumsfeld, a Board member since 1988, was appointed Chairman of the company.[4] He stood down from the Board in January 2001 when appointedUnited States Secretary of Defense at the start of George W. Bush's first term as President. Federal disclosure forms indicate that Rumsfeld owns between USD$5 million and USD$25 million in Gilead stock. The rise in Gilead's share prices from USD$35 to USD$57 per share will have added between USD$2.5 million to USD$15.5 million to Rumsfeld's net worth.
In November 2005, George W. Bush urged Congress to pass $7.1 billion in emergency funding to prepare for the possible bird flu pandemic, of which $1 billion is solely dedicated to the purchase, and distribution of Tamiflu.
In July 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Atripla, a once a day single tablet regimen for HIV, combining Sustiva (efavirenz), a Bristol-Myers Squibbproduct, and Truvada (emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate), a Gilead product.
Gilead purchased Raylo Chemicals, Inc. in November 2006 for a price of $133.3 million. Raylo Chemical, based in Edmonton, Alberta, was a wholly owned subsidiary of Degussa AG, a German company. Raylo Chemical was a custom manufacturer of active pharmaceutical ingredients and advanced intermediates for the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries.

Entry in the cardiovascular and respiratory therapeutic areas

In 2006, Gilead completed two acquisitions that allowed the company to branch out from its historical antiviral franchise into the cardiovascular and respiratory therapeutic arenas.
Myogen, based in Boulder, Colorado, was completing Phase 3 studies of ambrisentan--now marketed as "Letairis"--an orally available endothelin receptor antagonist. The U.S. FDA subsequently approved ambrisentan for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in June 2007.
Under an agreement with GlaxoSmithKline, Myogen marketed Flolan (epoprostenol sodium) in the United States for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension. Additionally, Myogen was developing (in Phase 3 studies) darusentan, also an endothelin receptor antagonist, for the potential treatment of resistant hypertension.
The other acquisition was Corus Pharma. Corus' lead product candidate, aztreonam lysine for inhalation, is an antibiotic with activity against gram-negative bacteria includingPseudomonas aeruginosa, which can cause lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. The product is in Phase 3 studies.Gilead also obtained an inhalation formulation of two antibiotics for treatment of respiratory infections.
Gilead expanded its move into respiratory therapeutics in 2007 by entering into a licensing agreement with Parion for an epithelial sodium channel inhibitor for the treatment of pulmonary diseases, including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis
In 2009, Gilead acquired CV Therapeutics. This acquisition brought Ranexa and Lexiscan as commercial products. Ranexa is a cardiovascular drug used to treat chronic angina(chest pain related to coronary artery disease).


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